Civil Surveyor Course in Peshawar Bannu,Civil Surveyor Course in Rawalpindi Taxila Wah,international college of technical education in rawalpindi islamabad pakistan,best civil surveyor institute in rawalpindi islamabad pakistan,professional civil surveyor advance course in rawalpindi,lowest fee civil surveyor practical training course in rawalpindi islamabad pakistan,admission open for boys and girls new session start on 12 October 2020 International College of Technical Education.Head Office :Office # 27, Second Floor, Maryam Shadi Hall Plaza(Airies Plaza), Shamsabad, Murree Road, Rawalpindi, Pakistan 0311-5193625, 0092-335-4176949,What is surveying in civil? Surveying is the process of analyzing and recording the characteristics of a land area span to help design a plan or map for construction. Total Station is the currently preferred Surveying equipment in the industry.Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics, engineering, metrology, programming languages and the law. They use equipment like total stations, robotic total stations, GPS receivers, retro reflectors, 3D scanners, radios, handheld tablets, digital levels, drones, GIS and surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is also used in transport, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines.The main surveying instruments in use around the world are the theodolite, measuring tape, total station, 3D scanners, GPS/GNSS, level and rod. Most instruments screw onto a tripod when in use. Tape measures are often used for measurement of smaller distances. 3D scanners and various forms of aerial imagery are also used.Verniers allowed measurement to a fraction of a degree, such as with a turn-of-the-century transit. The plane table provided a graphical method of recording and measuring angles, which reduced the amount of mathematics required. In 1829 Francis Ronalds invented a reflecting instrument for recording angles graphically by modifying the octant. By observing the bearing from every vertex in a figure, a surveyor can measure around the figure. The final observation will be between the two points first observed, except with a 180° difference. This is called a close. If the first and last bearings are different, this shows the error in the survey, called the angular misclose. The surveyor can use this information to prove that the work meets the expected standards.Civil Surveyor Course Content:Introduction Civil SurveyorClassification of surveyCivil ServeyorPrinciples of surveyChain surveyPlotting of chain surveyCompass surveyBearing systemDrawing ScalesTypes of scalesLevelingTechnical termsPurpose of LevelingPlain table surveyMethods of plane table surveyAdjustment of LevelsTotal Station Practical TrainingAuto Level / Theodolite TrainingGPS Practical Training