Civil Surveyor Approved Course in Kohat Peshawar Saudia,Civil Surveyor Approved Course in Bagh Muzaffarabad,international college of technical education in rawalpindi bagh muzaffarabad punjab pakistan,best civil surveyor approved course in rawalpindi bagh muzaffarabad pakistan,professional civil surveyor course in rawalpindi bagh muzaffarabad pakistan,The Civil and Surveying Technology: Land Surveying major prepares students for technical positions in the land surveying, mapping, land development and land planning professions.Civil engineering and land surveying are the oldest, largest and most diverse disciplines of the engineering profession. The Civil and Surveying Technician with a land surveying emphasis may help plan, develop, layout, map and maintain: public works, land development, and transportation projects, horizontal and vertical control networks, and land and geographic information systems.Employment is available in surveying, mapping, land planning, plan checking and review, project administration and management. The land surveying and mapping professions continue to offer excellent employment opportunities. Opportunities are available in both public service and private enterprise, offering a wide range of career opportunities to satisfy individual interests, aptitudes, and goals. Employers generally report that it is very difficult to find applicants who meet their hiring standards. This indicates a very good outlook for qualified job seekers.The Civil & Surveying Technician may choose a land surveying, planning or mapping occupational path. Regardless of the choice of discipline, the career ladder is very similar. Some firms or agencies have more than one discipline represented.Students interested in a suggested order for taking classes in this program, can view the recommended course sequence. For students interested in a Certificate of Achievement, a Civil and Surveying Technology: Land Surveying certificate is available.The history of surveying started with plane surveying when the first line was measured. Today the land surveying basics are the same but the instruments and technology has changed. The surveying equipments used today are much more different than the simple surveying instruments in the past. The land surveying methods too have changed and the surveyor uses more advanced tools and techniques in Land survey.Civil Engineering survey is based on measuring, recording and drawing to scale the physical features on the surface of the earth. For different survey sites, different tools and survey equipment is used. The surveyor uses instruments for measuring, a field book for recording and nowadays surveying softwares for plotting and drawing to scale the site features.The earth appears to “fall away” with distance. The curved shape of the earth means that the level surface through the telescope will depart from the horizontal plane through the telescope as the line of sight proceeds to the horizon.Refraction is largely a function of atmospheric pressure and temperature gradients, which may cause the bending to be up or down by extremely variable amounts.Geodetic or trigonometric surveying takes into account the curvature of earth. Since very extensive areas and very large distances are involved, curvature of the earth has to be consodered. In geodic surveying highly refined instruments and methods are used for taking measurements. Geodetic work is usually undertaken by a state agency e.g. Survey of Pakistan.Chain SurveyingCompass SurveyingLevelingContouringTachometryTheodolite WorkTotal StationChain SurveyingOffsetting (Right and oblique offsets)Chain Survey of an area and Plotting workCompass SurveyingLevelingContouringTachometryTheodolite workTotal Station Work